Furthermore, a visual sorting is not possible. Gnarled bark of old sweet chestnut tree trunk (Castanea sativa) in green woodland, National Forest, Derbyshire, England, UK Detail of the bark of a horse chestnut tree eroded by time, with textures and scratches on the background. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. The water in which you boil the chestnuts along with its shell or bark is rich in Tannins. Spiral fissures may develop on old trunks; the bark is brown. Credit: Martin Fowler / Alamy Stock Photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF …  However, high sugar amounts seem to have a negative impact on the fiber content. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are around 25 years old. Credit: Wendy Johnson / Alamy Stock Photo. Instead, fructose is mostly responsible for the sweet taste.  Pollen data indicates that the first spreading of C. sativa due to human activity started around 2100-2050 B.C. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. Chestnuts are traditionally roasted in their tough brown husks after removing the spiny cupules in which they grow on the tree, the husks being peeled off and discarded and the hot chestnuts dipped in salt before eating them. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. Most sweet chestnut is consumed in processed form, which has an impact on the nutrient composition. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house.  Low temperature in autumn can damage the fruit. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. Chestnuts are highly nutritious and therefore helpful during convalescence. Delivery is free. Their high level of starch is similar to that of wheat and twice as high as the potato. Record all sweet chestnut … A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times. Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? Nevertheless, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain today. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale", "Genetic structure of Castanea sativa in Turkey: evidence of a hybrid zone", 10.1002/1099-1417(200009)15:6<621::AID-JQS524>3.0.CO;2-L, "Reworking the idea of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) Download our free Tree ID app for Android and iPhone to identify the UK's native and non-native trees. You can’t id the tree from a distance by its shape but if you look closely at the bark, buds and shoots and then look for old leaves and old fruit underneath the tree, you can be sure that it is a Sweet Chestnut. 1982873. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest. The two major fungal pathogens of the sweet chestnut are the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and the ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora and Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. , Increasing sweet chestnut pollen appearances in Switzerland, France, Germany and the Iberian peninsula in the first century A.D. suggests the spreading of cultivated sweet chestnut trees by the Romans. Sweet Chestnut Bark. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. A local variety of Corsican beer also uses chestnuts.  Nowadays, sweet chestnut production is sometimes seen at a turning point again, because the development of high-value sweet chestnut products combined with changing needs of an urban society is leading to a revival in C. sativa cultivation.  Indeed, no center of sweet chestnut cultivation outside the Italian peninsula in Roman times has been detected. They can develop vast girths which can reach up to 2m in diameter. Doing so is time-saving and economical, but it's possible that some fruits get injured, and a big initial investment is needed. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients. It is used to make furniture, bar… Other common names include "Spanish chestnut", or "marron" (French for "chestnut"). Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased. 8 no. Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a sweet chestnut tree. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. In contrast to a cold storage system, where the fruits are stored at low temperatures in untreated air, the controlled environment method avoids flesh hardening which negatively impacts the processability of the product.. The trunk is mostly straight with branching starting at low heights. Tannins, when taken in controlled amounts, can relieve you from Diarrhea. The raw nuts, though edible, have a skin which is astringent and unpleasant to eat when still moist; after drying for a time the thin skin loses its astringency but is still better removed to reach the white fruit underneath. , Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health.  The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. Absence of fruit formation leads to die back of the petal. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. Transform your home into a woodland wonderland this Christmas with our easy ideas for festive, foraged home decor.  Heat appears to be the most influencing factor when it comes to decreasing the organic acid content. Sweet chestnut The female flowers eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the seed. Leaves are oblong with a pointed tip and toothed or serrated edge. Its naturally high concentration of organic acids is a key factor influencing the organoleptic characteristics of fruits and vegetables, namely flavor. It can live to more than 2,000 years of age in natural conditions, see the poetically-named "hundred-horse chestnut" in eastern Sicily for example. With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas. After water treatment, the sweet chestnuts are stored in a controlled environment with high carbon dioxide concentrations. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. Examples can be seen particularly in the London Boroughs of Islington and Camden. However, even after heating sweet chestnuts, antioxidant activity remains relatively high. Those ba…  Harvest time is between middle of September and middle of November. Sweet chestnut. In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. June 2020. The seeds develop inside the prickly, green seed cases.Identified in winter by: the bark which has fissures that spiral upwards around the tree. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage Oxid Med Cell Longev. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. Flowers and Fruits. 294344) and in Scotland (No. , Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:, The field management is dependent on the cultivation system. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marrons [fr], sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés.  Organic acids are also affected by high temperatures: their content decreases about 50% after frying, and 15% after boiling. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance. , The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil.  The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. , Sweet chestnut is suited for human nutrition. The Romans ground sweet chestnuts into a flour or coarse meal.Sweet chestnuts are a rich source of vitamins C (the only nut that is) and B, and minerals including magnesium, potassium and iron. But the younger chestnut tree has a smoother bark. In other European countries, C. sativa has only been introduced recently, for example in Slovakia or the Netherlands.. Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives.  Nowadays there are cultivars that are resistant to the ink disease. Countries like England, Croatia, Turkey and Georgia only have a partially developed sweet chestnut tradition due to geography or history. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. The world’s oldest known chestnut tree grows on Mount Etna in Sicily and has a circumference of 190 feet.  Optimal precipitation is between 400 and 1600 mm. , Clues in art and literature indicate a dislike of the sweet chestnut by the Roman aristocracy.  Like Theophrastus, Latin authors are sceptical of the sweet chestnut as a fruit, and Pliny the Elder even goes as far as admiring how well nature has hidden this fruit of apparently so little value.  Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings.  In the mid-seventh-century Lombard laws a composition of one solidi is set for felling a chestnut tree (or, also, hazel, pear or apple) belonging to another person (Edictus Rothari, No.  The first charcoal remains of sweet chestnut only date from around 850-950 B.C., making it very difficult to infer a precise origin history.  Vitamin C significantly decreases between 25-54 % when boiled and 2-77 % when roasted. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. Mechanical: The fruits are collected with a machine that works similarly to a vacuum cleaner.  Responsible for the aromatic characteristics of cooked chestnuts is the effect of degradation of saccharides, proteins and lipids, the caramelization of saccharides and the maillard reaction that is reducing sugar and amino acids. Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels. , Similar to the introduction of grape vine and olive cultivation to the Latin world, C. sativa is thought to have been introduced during the colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks.  The sweet chestnut is naturallyself incompatible, meaning that the plant cannot pollinate itself, making cross-pollination necessary. The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. Sweet Chestnut is monoecious: it has separate male and female flowers. The sap wood is narrow and generally usable where a waney edge feature … Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well. Sweet chestnut is native to southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. Chinese chestnuts bloom earlier than American chestnuts. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help.  The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). Four processes are decisive for the degrading process of sugar while cooking: hydrolysis of starch to oligosaccharide and monosaccharide, decomposition of sucrose to glucose and fructose, caramelization of sugars and degradation of sugars. 1 (1768). The most widespread treatment before storage is water curing, a process in which the sweet chestnuts are immersed in water for nine days. Sweet Chestnut produces nuts in warm summers. The timber has a density of 560 kg per cubic meter, and due to its durability in ground contact is often used for external purposes such as fencing.  The aim of this practice is to limit the main storage problems threatening the sweet chestnut: fungi development and the presence of insect worms. The Horse Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum, which has also been known as Hippocastanum vulgare (Gaertn. Oxidative Damage.  On the other hand, the consumer must consider that roasting, boiling or frying has a big impact on the nutritional profile of chestnut. The leaves are completely different, with sweet chestnut having single, long, serrated leaves and horse chestnut having hand-shaped leaves with deeply divided lobes or ‘fingers’.  The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. The buds alternate on young shoots. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)  Contrary to that notion, other scientists found no indication of the Romans spreading C. sativa before the fifth century. Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing.  Sweet chestnut is also appreciated in a gluten-free diet. Image of foliage, form, texture - 129118645 In the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet chestnut an important role in human nutrition due to its beneficial health effects.  Once cooked, chestnuts acquire a sweet flavour and a floury texture similar to the sweet potato. The sweet chestnut is a native of the Mediterranean region and the Romans probably introduced the sweet chestnut to Britain for its nuts (seeds) which are quite edible raw or cooked and can be made into flour or used as a coffee bean substitute. These trees can develop vast girths of up to 2m in diameter. Twigs are purple-brown and buds are red-brown and oval in shape. Ideally located in Fife Leisure Park (just off Junction 3 of the M90), we’re perfect for travellers, families visiting from the city centre, or visitors to the Bowlplex bowling alley and Odeon cinema. Chestnut blight has recently arrived in the UK, which causes bark cankers and can lead to dieback and death.  The Corsican variety of polenta (called pulenta) is made with sweet chestnut flour. Introduced by the Romans and a roasted winter treat.  Various composition and health studies have shown its big potential as a food ingredient and functional food. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree) is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. The leaves are quite glossy and there are about 20 pairs of prominent parallel veins. The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) was probably introduced to Britain by the Romans. The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella and North American rose chafer Macrodactylus subspinosus. It is often found in parkland as a specimen tree with a smooth grey bark and long dark green toothed leaves which contrast with the long, yellowish spring catkins. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. These old trees provide us with our classic Christmas nut. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. The fruit yield per tree is usually between 30–100 kg, but can get as high as 300 kg.  Widespread use of chestnut in western Europe started in the early Middle Ages and flourished in the late Middle Ages. The remains of the male catkin stay attached to the husk until it falls off. , C. sativa is found across the Mediterranean region, from the Caspian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Height: Broadening with age, the sweet chestnut can reach up to 40 metres in height. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. ), is an entirely different tree from the Sweet Chestnut, to which it is not even distantly related, and is of much more recent importation to English soil. It is thought to have been introduced to the British Isles by the Romans and today can be found commonly throughout the UK in woods and copses, especially in parts of southern England where it is still managed to form large areas of coppice. The nuts are a valuable food source for many mammals. Long-distance spread of C. parasitica can occur through movements of infected sweet chestnut plants, wood or bark in trade.Once bark has been colonised, the mycelium of the pathogen is reported to survive in this tissue for up to 10 months, even if it has been air dried. 301, 643 CE). It grows long catkins, the remains of which stay attached to the husk until they fall off. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 , This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. Sweet Chestnut is a large, beautiful, quick growing tree. It has a straight grain when young, but this spirals in older trees. It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … in Europe", "Projektstudie: Die Edelkastanie auf Obstwiesen - Eine Alternative zum Kirschanbau?  Italy, France, southern Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Greece are countries with a strong sweet chestnut tradition, with trees cultivated intensively in coppices and orchards.  The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. Sweet Chestnut bark seating Whilst running the intro to green woodworking course we took the time to peel the bark from the sweet chestnut logs before riving them down, with the aim of using it for weaving, principally for seating the chairs that I will be making this summer. Lifespan: 450 years Natural range: Mediterranean and Asia … Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. … Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures.  Some cultivars only produce one large seed per cupule, while others produce up to three seeds. GB520 6111 04. Sweet chestnut can be a large tree up to 30 m in height, with a single trunk but is often coppiced to form a shrub of many straight poles. Sweet chestnut bark is a superb material to make baskets with being both strong and flexible. The bark resembles a large twisted steel cable. .  Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. Sweet chestnut can grow up to 9m plus in girth. ... Bark. Roman soldiers were given chestnut porridge before going into battle. The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker, thick, and deeply furrowed ; the furrows run longitudinally, and tend to twist around the trunk … 2013;2013:471790. doi: 10.1155/2013/471790. Appearance Waney edge boards of sweet chestnut will be supplied with wane (bark) on one or two edges. 7 There is also a small risk of transmission by fruits or seeds.Locally, the spores of C. parasitica are spread by wind and water, but might a…  The nut itself is composed of two skins: an external, shiny brown part, and an internal skin adhering to the fruit. , The species is widely distributed throughout Europe, where in 2004 C. sativa was grown on 2.25 million hectares of forest, of which 1.78 million hectares were mainly cultivated for wood and 0.43 million hectares for fruit production. In general, the climate should be similar to viticulture. Sweet chestnut is found commonly throughout woods and copses in Britain.  It is a heat-loving tree which needs a long vegetation period.  While the husks of sweet chestnuts, dated to the third or early fourth century, have been identified from the bottom of a Roman well at Great Holts Farm, Boreham, UK; this deposit includes remains of other exotic food plants and provides no evidence that any of them originated locally. It is native to Southern Europe but has now become common on light non-chalky soils throughout Britain. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. SC038885).  It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), which has similar nuts, but those of the sweet chestnut are smaller and found in clusters. Photograph: Ana Pérez-Sierra, Forest Research Chestnut blight canker Signs and symptoms On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. wrightrkuk has uploaded 4984 photos to Flickr. There is very little mythology surrounding the sweet chestnut in the UK, probably because it was introduced. Sweet chestnut and specifically the chestnut tree bark are found to be a very effective remedy for Diarrhea. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. About 16–28 cm long, 5–9 cm wide and oblong with a pointed tip and a serrated or toothed edge. Furthermore, this characteristic is valuable in cases of celiac diseases as well as reducing coronary heart diseases and cancer rates. Credit: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy Stock Photo. The bark is smooth and greyish-green when young, becoming … While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. It is a native of northern and central parts of Asia, from … We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. The aim of this work was the hydrothermal treatment of chestnut tannins in the temperature range 120–300 °C and reaction times of 15, 30 and 60 min.  As an alternative to water curing, hot water treatment is also commercially used. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. Explore wrightrkuk's photos on Flickr.  Theophrastus focuses mainly on the use of sweet chestnut wood as timber and charcoal, only mentioning the use of the fruit once when commenting on the digestive difficulties it causes, but praising its nourishing quality. Gardeners Dictionary ed. 79. By hand: The sweet chestnuts are harvested by rake or broom, with a harvest speed of 5 to 30 kg every hour depending on the soil relief. However, setting up the nets is work intensive. VAT No. The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood. Sep 19th, 2011 by Richard. Will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years registered office: Kempton way sweet chestnut bark Grantham, Lincolnshire, 6LL. 1000 years or more challenges and successes and how you can help [ 13 ] Compared to other,... Eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the Caspian Sea to same! 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